To start with, descriptive characteristics of the data members by sex was showed due to the fact rates with their particular 95% confidence period (CI)

To start with, descriptive characteristics of the data members by sex was showed due to the fact rates with their particular 95% confidence period (CI)

Sociodemographic characteristics provided racial thinking-category (white otherwise low-white age.g. black, brown, red, or indigenous), place of quarters (urban or rural), education (0–4, 5–8, 9–eleven, or ? a dozen many years), and month-to-month domestic money for every capita within the tertiles (reasonable, middle, otherwise large). The fresh urban–rural category are according to research by the methods utilized by this new Brazilian Institute out-of Geography and Analytics (for the Portuguese, IBGE) into the 2010 populace census off management restrictions establish by the regional laws. Contained in this for each municipality’s boundaries, these local guidelines introduce an imaginary line entitled “urban edge”. The census tracts discover in the “metropolitan perimeter” is called metropolitan, whereas the rest of the areas are appointed rural. Additional information is received by way of a face-to-face interview from the participant’s household.

Anthropometric variables

Height was measured in centimeters (cm) using a portable vertical stadiometer (NutriVida®, Brazil) with the participants barefoot with legs and feet parallel, weight distributed on both feet, arms relaxed at the sides, palms facing the body, and head in the Frankfurt horizontal plane. Weight was measured in kilograms (kg) using a portable digital scale (SECA®, Germany) with participants barefoot. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as the ratio between weight in kilograms (kg) and height in square meters (m 2 ). BMI cutoff points were based on the World Health Organization recommendation: underweight (< 18.5> 94 cm in men and > 80 cm in women were considered “increased” since they are associated with a higher risk of metabolic complications . All anthropometric variables were measured twice during the home visit by trained interviewers and the mean of the measurements was used in the analyses. Further information can be seen in the handbook on the survey homepage (

Mathematical data

Additionally, we provided information on the most prevalent chronic diseases diagnosed by a physician in our sample. Secondly, fractional polynomial regression models were fitted to estimate the percentiles (P5, P10, P20, P25, P50, P75, P90, and P95) of HGS by age group and sex. This method provides smooth centile curves and explicit formulae for the percentile estimates. Diagnostic tests were used to evaluate the model fit (normal plot of the Z-scores, Shapiro–Wilk test, and residuals plot). The model was fitted by maximum likelihood, which accounts for non-normal skewness and/or kurtosis in the data . Thirdly, HGS centile curves for men and women were plotted in charts. Finally, unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models separate for men and women were created to investigate the sociodemographic and anthropometric variables associated with muscle weakness, being estimated the odds ratio (OR) with 95%CI. Variables with p < 0.20>


Figure 1 describes the flow chart of the participants throughout the study. Our analytical sample was composed of 7905 participants aged 50–101 years (63.1 ± 9.1 years): 3162 men (63.2 ± 8.7 years) and 4743 women (63.1 ± 9.4 years). The excluding participants were similar to including participants regarding sex (p = 0.092), schooling (p = 0.813), and monthly household income per capita (p = 0.189) but tended to be older (? 80 years: 11.8% vs. 6.5% bu siteye bir gГ¶z atД±n, respectively, p < 0.001).

The characteristics of your analysis professionals of the sex is seen when you look at the Table step one. In both sexes, really participants were non-light, lived in the fresh town, had 0–4 years of education, and you may shown enhanced sides width. Towards Body mass index, overweight is the most common category for men (42.9%), if you are fat and you can obesity got nearly comparable frequencies for women (36.9% and you may 35.4%, respectively). Away from chronic illness, forty two.1% regarding people stated that have a health medical diagnosis away from arterial hypertension, 17.4% of diabetes mellitus, eleven.5% out of osteoporosis, 7.4% out of center sickness (angina, myocardial infarction, and center incapacity), and 5.7% regarding respiratory disorder (symptoms of asthma and you may chronic obstructive pulmonary problem).

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